 31 Oct 2022
 25 Minutes to read
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Sluices
 Updated on 31 Oct 2022
 25 Minutes to read
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This section describes vertical and radial sluice gates.
Radial Sluice: This unit models a bank of radial sluice gates each of which can be in 11 operating modes depending on upstream and downstream water levels and the gate settings.
Vertical Sluice: The Vertical Sluice Gate models a bank of vertical sluice gates each of which can be in 11 operating modes depending on upstream and downstream water levels and the gate settings
Data
Field in Data Entry Form  Description  Name in Datafile 

Upstream  Upstream node label  Label1 
Downstream  Downstream node label  Label2 
Remote Node Label  Optional label for gates controlled by water level at a remote node ('water3' mode)  Label3 
Weir Flow Coefficient  Coefficient of approach velocity for weir flow (includes multiplicative calibration factor if required)  C_{vw} 
UnderGate Flow Coefficient  Coefficient of approach velocity for undergate flow (includes multiplicative calibration factor if required). Dependent on ratio of difference between step and gate seat and height p1 (see Bos M.G. (1989), fig 8.11)  C_{vg} 
Breadth of Weir  Breadth of sluice at control section (normal to the flow) (m)  b 
Elevation of Crest  Elevation of weir crest (mAD)  z_{c} 
Height of Gate /Gate chord  Height of gate (dimension from bottom to top of gate: i.e. across the chord, if RADIAL) (m)  h_{g} 
Length of Weir  Length of weir crest in the direction of flow (m)  L 
Gate movement specified in Degrees  Tick this box (deqflq = 'DEGREES') if radial sluice movements are measured, specifically userentered positions and rules operations, in degrees. Otherwise, vertical opening measurements will be used  degflg 
Allow free under gate flow  If checked, free orificetype flow is permitted 

Upstream Weir Height  Height of crest above bed of upstream channel (m)  p_{1} 
Downstream Weir Height  Height of crest above bed of downstream channel (m)  p_{2} 
Bias Factor  Biasing factor (1, 2, 3, 4 or 5) applied to water levels used for gate operation in water mode. Water levels over the current and previous four timesteps are weighted as table shows, and then used to determine the gate opening:  BIAS 
OverGate Flow Coefficient  Coefficient of approach velocity for overgate flow (includes multiplicative calibration factor if required)  C_{vs} 
Height of Gate  Height of pivot of gate above gate sill (m). Radial Sluice Gate only.  h_{p} 
Radius of Gate  Radius of gate (m). Radial Sluice Gate only.  R 
Number of Gates  Number of gates (each gate has identical dimensions)  n_{gates} 
Calculation Method  If VARIABLE, modular limits will be calculated automatically; if FIXED, userspecified values will be used as below 

Modular Limit  Weir  Modular limit for weir flow. If calculation method is set to FIXED, then Flood Modeller will:
If no value is entered in this field in teh data file (or calculation method is set to VARIABLE) then modular limits will be calculated by the software.  W_{drown} 
Modular Limit – Under Gate Flow  Modular limit for sluice gate flow. See Wdrown for notes on its significance. Only used if Wdrown is used  S_{drown} 
Modular Limit – Over Gate Flow  Modular limit for flow over the top of the gate. See Wdrown for notes on its significance. Only used if Wdrown is used  T_{drown} 
Control Method  Operating mode for gates:
 O_{mode} 
Max Movement Rate  Maximum movement rate of gate (m s1). This variable is required (and used) only when the sluice is in controller or logical operating modes  oprate 
Maximum Setting  Maximum opening of gate (m); this variable is required (and used) only when the sluice is in `controller' mode or `logical' operating modes  opemax 
Minimum Setting  Minimum opening of gate (m). This variable is required (and used) only when the sluice is in controller mode or logical operating modes. The default value for this variable is zero  opemin 
Controller Label  Label of SETSLUICE unit. This variable is required (and used) only when the sluice is in controller mode  CLabel 
n/a  Number of ensuing water level (or time) and gate opening data pairs for jth gate  n_{j} 
Time  The time at which the specified operations will apply 

Opening  The i'th specified gate opening for gate number j corresponding to time, ti,j (time mode or MANUAL operation in controller or logical modes) or to weighted (see BIAS) water level, yi,j ('water' modes), where yi,j is at the upstream, downstream or a remote node depending on Omode  yO_{i,j} 
Mode  Operating mode (Keyword AUTOMATIC/AUTO or MANUAL/MAN); only for controller or logical modes  opmode 
Theory and Guidance on Radial Sluice Gate
This unit models a bank of radial sluice gates each of which can be in 11 operating modes depending on upstream and downstream water levels and the gate settings.
Up to 10 identically sized radial sluice gates can be modelled in one unit. The dimensions and coefficients are exactly the same for each gate. However, the gate movements can be independently controlled.
Gate openings can be controlled according to model time, by water levels, by logical rules, or by an associated Rules unit. The gate opening is usually measured in metres above the sill, but an angular opening (in degrees) may also be chosen. An angle of 0° indicates that the gate chord (the gate is represented by a circle segment) is horizontal and below the pivot.
Time mode operation simply requires the user to define the desired gate opening for a set of model times. In time control, the gate will move at a constant rate between the specified settings during the time between them. In water level control the gate opening is defined according to the water level at the node immediately upstream or downstream of the gate or according to the water level at a remote node. In water level control mode, the gate opening is related to a weighted average of the water level at the previous 5 timesteps to prevent hunting of the gates. Water level control mode has now largely been replaced by logical control rules.
When in logical mode the sluice will use logical rules that are contained within a specific Rules data block to control the movements of all of its gates; this data block must appear immediately after the main part of the sluice datafile entry. For full details of how to use this option, please refer to the Rules topic.
In addition to the standard operating modes described above, there is an additional mode of operation: controller' mode. When the sluice is in controller mode all of the sluice gates will be controlled by commands from the control system model.
Please note that in controller and logical operation modes it is not possible to control individual gates within a sluice unit independently of each other. If this facility is required, the user must have one singlegated sluice unit in the datafile for each sluice gate.
When operating in either controller or logical mode there are two submodes of operation; automatic and manual control. Sluice gates can switch freely between these two modes of operation depending on the instructions the user has put into the datafile entry.
When in automatic mode the sluice gates will be driven from instructions from connected control units (in controller mode) or by currently valid rules within the RULES data (in logical mode). These instructions will be updated when the polling time interval has elapsed. Instructions are interpreted as a command to move to a target gate position  between fully closed and the maximum opening value  and the sluice gates will be moved to this target position at the maximum movement rate over the subsequent polling time interval.
When operating in manual control mode the target gate positions are obtained from the appropriate line of the time switch data in the datafile entry for the controlled sluice unit. When the model time reaches or exceeds the time value in the switch data, the sluice unit will move all of its gates to the corresponding gate opening value, moving at the maximum rate possible.
Note that when in manual mode the sluice gates will attempt to move instantaneously from one setting to another (i.e. intermediate positions are not obtained via linear interpolation, as they are in Time control mode).
Flow beneath the sluice gate where the gate does not interfere with the flow is described by the round nosed horizontal broad crested weir equations. Drowned or free orifice equations are used when the gate does interfere with the flow.
Flow over the gate top is represented by equations for a sharp crested weir. Simultaneous overshoot and undershoot flow are allowed. 11 different modes of flow are covered.
Each gate may have a different opening and hence a different mode of flow at a particular time. Unit mode and unit state (gate opening) are the average mode and state for all gates and are output against the upstream node label (ie the first label).
Reverse flow through the gates is allowed and assumes that the same coefficients prevail.
The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the weir crest is set to be 0.1
metres.
The modular limit for weir flow is taken from Figure 4.2 in Bos M.G. (1989) using the mean line between the relationship for a radial back face and a sloping (1 to 4) back face as follows:
log10 (h1/p2)  m ( = h_{2}/h_{1}) (or m = (h_{2}h_{g}) / (h_{1}h_{g}) for overgate flow) 

10  0.71 
1  0.72 
0  0.89 
0.3  0.93 
0.48  0.95 
1  0.98 
1020  0.98 
where the variables are defined in the following figure:
Equations
see Bos M.G. (1989) Section 8.4
Define
h_{1} = y_{1}  z_{c}
h_{2} = y_{2}  z_{c}
Mode 0  Dry Crest
Condition  h_{1}_{ }£ 0.005 (Lr) 
Equation  Q = 0 
Mode 1  Gate closed, upstream and downstream level below gate top
Condition  h_{o}_{ }< 0.001 h_{1}_{ } h_{g} £ 0.005 (Lr) 
Equation  Q = 0 
Mode 2  Gate closed, free flow over gate
Condition  h_{o} < 0.001 (h_{1}h_{g}) > 0 (h_{2}h_{g}) / (h_{1}h_{g}) £ m where: m is the modular limit  
Equation 
where: C_{e} = 0.602 + 0.075 (h_{1}  h_{g}  h_{o}) / (p_{1} + h_{g} + h_{o}) g = gravitational acceleration (m/s^{2})  
Fixed Modular Limit Equation 

Mode 3  Gate closed, drowned flow over gate
Condition  h_{o} < 0.001 (h_{1}  h_{g}) > 0 (h_{2}  h_{g}) / (h_{1}  h_{g}) > m  
Equation 
where: C_{e} = 0.602 + 0.075 (h_{1}  h_{g}  h_{o}) / (p_{1} + h_{g} + h_{o}) C_{rf} = [ 1  (h_{2}  h_{g}  h_{o})^{1.5} / (h_{1}  h_{g}  h_{o})^{1.5} ]^{0.385} g = gravitational acceleration (m/s^{2})  
Fixed Modular Limit Equation 
where: f is a function defined in Mode 5 below 
Mode 4  Free weir flow under gate
Condition  h_{o} ³ 0.001 h_{2}/h_{1} £ m 0.005(L  r) < h_{1} < 1.5 h_{o} h_{2} < h_{o}  
Equation 
where: C_{d} = [ 1  d (L  r ) / b ] [ 1  (d / 2h_{1}) (L  r) ]^{1.5} r = 0.1 d = 0.01 g = gravitational acceleration (m/s^{2})  
Fixed Modular Limit Equation 

Mode 5  Drowned weir flow under gate
Condition  h_{o} ³ 0.001 h_{2}/h_{1} > m 0.005(L  r) < h_{1} < h_{o}  
Equation 
where: C_{d} = [ 1  d (L  r ) / b ] [ 1  (d / 2h_{1}) (L  r) ]^{1.5} r = 0.1 d = 0.01 g = gravitational acceleration (m/s^{2})  
Fixed Modular Limit Equation 
where: when m £ (h_{2} / h_{1}) £ 0.91 + 0.09m or: when the above condition is untrue 
Mode 6  Free gate flow
Condition  h_{o} ³ 0.001 h_{1} ³ 1.5 h_{o } h_{2}/h_{o} < ( a / 2) { Ö (1 + 16 [ h_{1} / (ah_{0})  1 ] )  1 }  
Equation 
where: C_{d} = a / (1 + a h_{0 }/ h_{1} )^{0.5} a = 1  1.5(q / p ) + 1.44(q / p )2 cosq = (h_{p}_{ }  h_{q} ) / r g = gravitational acceleration (m/s^{2})  
Fixed Modular Limit Equation 
where: f = 1.0 when j ³ 0.520 (free flow Mode 6) or: when j < 0.520 (drowned flow Mode 7) where: 
Mode 7  Drowned gate flow
Condition  h_{0} ³ 0.001 h_{1} ³ 1.5 h_{0} h_{2}/h_{0} ³ a /2 { Ö ( 1 + 16[ h_{1} / (ah_{0})  1 ] ) 1 }  
Equation 
where: C_{d} = a / [ 1  ( a h_{0} / h_{1})2 ]^{0.5} a = 1  1.5(q / p ) + 1.44(q / p )2 cosq = (h_{p } h_{}_{q}_{ }) / R g = gravitational acceleration (m/s^{2})  
Fixed Modular Limit Equation  see Mode 6 
Mode 8  Free over gate and free under gate flow
Condition  As Mode 6 and: (h_{1}  h_{g}) > 0 
Equation  Sum of Mode 6 and Mode 2 equations. 
Mode 9  Free over gate and drowned under gate flow
Condition  As Mode 7 and: (h_{1}  h_{g}) > 0 (h_{2}  h_{g}) £ 0 
Equation  Sum of Mode 7 and Mode 2 equations. 
Mode 10  Drowned over gate and drowned under gate flow
Condition  As Mode 7 and: (h_{1}  h_{g}) > 0 (h_{2}  h_{g}) > 0 
Equation  Sum of Mode 7 and Mode 3 equations. 
General
The equation for drowned weir flow is based on the Bernoulli equation constrained to a smooth transition between free and drowned flow at the modular limit. There is no experimental or theoretical equation in the literature for this mode of flow.
The equations are couched in terms of water levels with a coefficient of velocity rather than using total head.
There are discontinuities between the equations for certain modes of flow, for example the transition from free gate to free weir flow can lead to a sudden change in flow for the same head or vice versa. This can lead to hunting between some of the different modes. There is no information in the literature on transitions between modes for sluices.
If poor convergence problems are found to be caused by this unit then you may wish to try the alternative solution technique available by setting the fixed modular limit values W_{drown}, S_{drown} and T_{drown}. The alternative technique is likely to reduce hunting between different modes of operation.
Care must be taken with the specification of sensible control rules. In `water' control modes, for example, it is possible to specify the control rules such that there are regions where no equations apply.
It is recommended that logical control rules are used in preference to water control modes.
The test for change from weir flow to under gate flow (and vice versa) assumes that the gate is located at a point on the sill where critical flow occurs. Hence the upstream water depth above the sill must be 50% greater than the gate opening before undergate flow equations come into action.
The equations used are a strict application of those found in Bos M.G. (1989). Losses due to side effects, unusual piers, angled approach direction, etc need to be taken into account in the coefficients C_{vs}, C_{vg} and C_{vw}.
When using `controller' or `logical' modes, if the datafile is set up so that for a particular run a sluice gate starts up in `AUTO' mode, the sluice gate opening will initially be set to the value given in the unit state (ustate) field in the initial conditions. If this is outside the possible range, the corresponding datafile entry in the switch data set must have a gate opening value, which will be used. Other `AUTO' entries in the switch data set need not have a corresponding speed value as the sluice will receive its target gate positions from the control system or from the logical rules subblock. If gate openings are given in this instance they will be ignored by the controlled sluice unit.
When starting in `AUTO' mode for `controller' operation, it may be necessary to ensure that the initial gate openings in the switch data set are compatible with the initial output value from the corresponding SETSLUICE unit. Otherwise the signal from the control system may result in a large initial change in gate opening.
For reasons of stability it is often desirable to run the controlled sluice unit in MANUAL mode for a short time even if an automatic run is required in `controller' mode. This is to ensure that control unit variables (such as outputs, errors, etc.) can stabilise without any interfering feedback effects.
Combinations of different dimension sluice gates in a hydraulic complex may be modelled by grouping gates of the same dimension into one of several units, and connecting each unit by a JUNCTION.
The direct steady solver may not be used on models containing this unit type if any gates are operating in `remote water' mode.
In default mode, the unit state for this unit is the average gate opening (in metres). If the Gate movements measured in degrees option is chosen, the unit state is the deviation from vertical in degrees of the line of symmetry of the gate.
Theory and Guidance on Vertical Sluice Gate
The Vertical Sluice Gate models a bank of vertical sluice gates each of which can be in 11 operating modes depending on upstream and downstream water levels and the gate settings.
Up to 10 identically sized vertical sluice gates can be modelled in one unit. The dimensions and coefficients are exactly the same for each gate. However the gate movements can be independently controlled.
Gate openings can be controlled according to model time, by water levels, by logical rules, or by an associated Rules unit.
Time mode operation simply requires the user to define the desired gate opening for a set of model times. In time control, the gate will move at a constant rate between the specified settings during the time between them. In water level control the gate opening is defined according to the water level at the node immediately upstream or downstream of the gate or according to the water level at a remote node. In water level control mode the gate opening is related to a weighted average of the water level at the previous 5 time steps to prevent hunting of the gates. Water level control mode has now largely been replaced by logical control rules.
When in logical mode the sluice will use logical rules that are contained within a specific Rules unit to control the movements of all of its gates; this data block must appear immediately after the main part of the sluice datafile entry. For full details of how to use this option, please refer to the Rules topic.
In addition to the standard operating modes described above, there is an additional mode: 'controller' mode. When the sluice is in controller mode all of the sluice gates will be controlled by commands from the control system model.
Please note that in controller and logical operation modes it is not possible to control individual gates within a sluice unit independently of each other. If this facility is required the user must have one singlegated sluice unit in the datafile for each sluice gate.
When operating in either controller or logical mode there are two submodes of operation; automatic and manual control. Sluice gates can switch freely between these two modes of operation depending on the instructions the user has put into the unit data.
When in automatic mode the sluice gates will be driven from instructions from connected control units (in controller mode) or by currently valid rules within the RULES data block (in logical mode). These instructions will be updated when the polling time interval has elapsed. Instructions are interpreted as a command to move to a target gate position  between fully closed and the maximum opening value  and the sluice gates will be moved to this target position at the maximum movement rate over the subsequent polling time interval.
When operating in manual control mode the target gate positions are obtained from the appropriate line of the time switch data in the datafile entry for the controlled sluice unit. When the model time reaches or exceeds the time value in the switch data, the sluice unit will move all of its gates to the corresponding gate opening value, moving at the maximum rate possible.
Note that when in manual mode the sluice gates will attempt to move instantaneously from one setting to another (i.e. intermediate positions are not obtained via linear interpolation, as they are in Time control mode).
Flow beneath the sluice gate where the gate does not interfere with the flow is described by the round nosed horizontal broad crested weir equations. Drowned or free orifice equations are used when the gate does interfere with the flow.
Flow over the gate top is represented by equations for a sharp crested weir. Simultaneous overshoot and undershoot flow are allowed. 11 different modes of flow are covered.
Each gate may have a different opening and hence a different mode of flow at a particular time. Unit mode and unit state (gate opening) are the average mode and state for all gates and are output against the upstream node label (ie the first label).
Reverse flow through the gates is allowed and assumes that the same coefficients prevail.
The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the weir crest is set to be 0.1 metres.
The modular limit for weir flow is taken from Harrison (1967) (also Figure 4.2 in Bos M.G. (1989)) using the mean line between the relationship for a vertical back face and a sloping (1 to 4) back face as follows:
log_{10} (h_{1}/p2)  m ( = h_{2}/h_{1} ) ( or m = (h_{2}h_{g}) / (h_{1}h_{g}) for overgate flow ) 

10  0.71 
1  0.72 
0  0.89 
0.3  0.93 
0.48  0.95 
1  0.98 
10^{20}  0.98 
where the variables are defined in the following figure:
Equations
See Bos M.G. (1989) Chapters 8 and 9.
Define
h_{1} = y_{1}  z_{c}
h_{2} = y_{2}  z_{c}
Mode 0  Dry Crest
Condition  h_{1} £ 0.005 (Lr) 
Equation  Q = 0 
Mode 1  Gate closed, upstream and downstream level below gate top
Condition  h_{o} < 0.001 h_{1}  h_{g} £ 0.005 (Lr) 
Equation  Q = 0 
Mode 2  Gate closed, free flow over gate
Condition  h_{o} < 0.001 (h_{1}h_{g}) > 0 (h_{2}h_{g}) / (h_{1}h_{g}) £ m where: m is the modular limit  
Equation 
where: C_{e} = 0.602 + 0.075 (h_{1}  h_{g}  h_{o}) / (p_{1} + h_{g} + h_{o}) g = gravitational acceleration (m/s^{2})  
Fixed Modular Limit Equation 

Mode 3  Gate closed, drowned flow over gate
Condition  h_{o} < 0.001 (h_{1}  h_{g}) > 0 (h_{2}  h_{g}) / (h_{1}  h_{g}) > m  
Equation 
where: C_{e} = 0.602 + 0.075 (h_{1}  h_{g}  h_{o}) / (p_{1} + h_{g} + h_{o}) C_{rf} = [ 1  (h_{2}  h_{g}  h_{o})^{1.5} / (h_{1}  h_{g}  h_{o})^{1.5} ]^{0.385} g = gravitational acceleration (m/s^{2})  
Fixed Modular Limit Equation 
where: f is a function defined in Mode 5 below 
Mode 4  Free weir flow under gate
Condition  h_{o} ³ 0.001 h_{2}/h_{1} £ m 0.005(L  r) < h_{1} < 1.5 h_{o} h_{2} < h_{o}  
Equation 
where: C_{d} = [ 1  d (L  r ) / b ] [ 1  (d / 2h_{1}) (L  r) ]^{1.5} r = 0.1 d = 0.01 g = gravitational acceleration (m/s^{2})  
Fixed Modular Limit Equation 

Mode 5  Drowned weir flow under gate
Condition  h_{o} ³ 0.001 h_{2}/h_{1} > m 0.005(L  r) < h_{1} < h_{o}  
Equation 
where: C_{d} = [ 1  d (L  r ) / b ] [ 1  (d / 2h_{1}) (L  r) ]^{1.5} r = 0.1 d = 0.01 g = gravitational acceleration (m/s^{2})  
Fixed Modular Limit Equation 
where: when m £ (h_{2} / h_{1}) £ 0.91 + 0.09m or: when the above condition is untrue 
Mode 6  Free gate flow
Condition  h_{o} ³ 0.001 h_{1} ³ 1.5 h_{o} h_{2}/h_{o} < ( a / 2) { Ö (1 + 16 [ h_{1} / (ah_{o})  1 ] )  1 }  
Equation 
where: a = Contraction Coefficient (see Bos M.G. (1989) Table 8.3)  
Fixed Modular Limit Equation 
where: f = 1.0 when j ³ 0.520 (free flow Mode 6) or: when j < 0.520 (drowned flow Mode 7) where: 
Mode 7  Drowned gate flow
Condition  h_{o} ³ 0.001 h_{1} ³ 1.5 h_{o} h_{2}/h_{o} ³ a /2 { Ö ( 1 + 16[ h_{1} / (ah_{o})  1 ] ) 1 }  
Equation 
where: C_{e} = 0.61 [ 1 + 0.15(b + 2h_{o}) / (2b + 2h_{o}) ] a = Contraction Coefficient (see Bos M.G. (1989) Table 8.3)  
Fixed Modular Limit Equation  see Mode 6 
Mode 8  Free over gate and free under gate flow
Condition  As Mode 6 and: (h_{1}  h_{g}) > 0 
Equation  Sum of Mode 6 and Mode 2 equations. 
Mode 9  Free over gate and drowned under gate flow
Condition  As Mode 7 and: (h_{1}  h_{g}) > 0 (h_{2}  h_{g}) £ 0 
Equation  Sum of Mode 7 and Mode 2 equations. 
Mode 10  Drowned over gate and drowned under gate flow
Condition  As Mode 7 and: (h_{1}  h_{g}) > 0 (h_{2}  h_{g}) > 0 
Equation  Sum of Mode 7 and Mode 3 equations. 
General
The equation for drowned weir flow is based on the Bernoulli equation constrained to a smooth transition between free and drowned flow at the modular limit. There is no experimental or theoretical equation in the literature for this mode of flow.
The equations are couched in terms of water levels with a coefficient of velocity rather than using total head.
There are discontinuities between the equations for certain modes of flow, for example the transition from free gate to free weir flow can lead to a sudden change in flow for the same head or vice versa. This can lead to hunting between different modes. There is no information in the literature on transitions between some of the modes for sluices.
If poor convergence problems are found to be caused by this unit then you may wish to try the alternative solution technique available by setting the fixed modular limit values W_{drown}, S_{drown} and T_{drown}. The alternative technique is likely to reduce hunting between different modes of operation.
Care must be taken with the specification of sensible control rules. In `water' control modes, for example, it is possible to specify the control rules such that there are regions where no equations apply.
It is recommended that logical control rules are used in preference to water control modes.
The test for change from weir flow to under gate flow (and vice versa) assumes that the gate is located at a point on the sill where critical flow occurs. Hence the upstream water depth above the sill must be 50% greater than the gate opening before undergate flow equations come into action.
The equations used are a strict application of those found in Bos M.G. (1989). Losses due to side effects, unusual piers, angled approach direction, etc need to be taken into account in the coefficients C_{vs}, C_{vg} and C_{vw}.
When using `controller' or `logical' modes, if the datafile is set up so that for a particular run a sluice gate starts up in `AUTO' mode, the sluice gate opening will initially be set to the value given in the unit state (ustate) field in the initial conditions. If this is outside the possible range, the corresponding datafile entry in the switch data set must have a gate opening value, which will be used. Other `AUTO' entries in the switch data set need not have a corresponding gate opening value as the sluice will receive its target gate positions from the control system or from the logical rules subblock. If gate openings are given in this instance they will be ignored by the controlled sluice unit.
When starting in `AUTO' mode for `controller' operation, it may be necessary to ensure that the initial gate openings in the switch data set are compatible with the initial output value from the corresponding SETSLUICE unit. Otherwise the signal from the control system may result in a large initial change in gate opening.
For reasons of stability it is often desirable to run the controlled sluice unit in MANUAL mode for a short time even if an automatic run is required in `controller' mode. This is to ensure that control unit variables (such as outputs, errors, etc.) can stabilise without any interfering feedback effects.
Combinations of different dimension sluice gates in a hydraulic complex may be modelled by grouping gates of the same dimension into one of several units, and connecting each unit by a JUNCTION.
The direct steady solver can not be used on models containing units of this type if any of the gates are operating in `remote water', `controller' or `logical' modes.
The unit state for this unit is the average gate opening (in metres).
Radial Sluice Gate Datafile Format
Line 1  keyword `SLUICE' [comment]
Line 2  keyword `RADIAL'
Line 3  Label1, Label2, [Label3]
Line 4  C_{vw}, C_{vg}, b, z_{c}, h_{g}, L, degflg
Line 5  p_{1}, p_{2}, BIAS, C_{vs}, h_{p}, R
Line 6  n_{gates}, [W_{drown}, S_{drown}, T_{drown}], tm, rptflg
Line 7  O_{mode}, [oprate, opemax, opemin, CLabel]
Line 8  keyword `GATE',[description]
Line 9  n_{1}
If O_{mode} = `water1' or `water2' or `water3':
Line 10 to Line 9+n_{1}  y_{1,j}, yO_{1,j}
If O_{mode} = `time':
Line 10 to Line 9+n_{1}  t_{1,j}, yO_{1,j}
If O_{mode} = `controller' or `logical'
Line 10 to Line 9+n_{1}  t_{1,j}, opmode, yO_{1,j}
Line 10+n_{1}  keyword `GATE', [description]
Line 11+n_{1}  n_{2}
If O_{mode} = `water1' or `water2' or `water3':
Line 12+n_{1} to Line 11+n_{1}+n_{2}  y_{1,j}, yO_{1,j}
If O_{mode} = `time':
Line 12+n_{1} to Line 11+n_{1}+n_{2}  t_{1,j}, yO_{1,j}
If O_{mode} = `controller' or `logical'
Line 12+n_{1} to Line 11+n_{1}+n_{2}  t_{1,j}, opmode, yO_{1,j}
Note:
 The last 3 lines are repeated for each gate in turn.
 The RULES subblock should appear immediately after this unit if `logical' operating mode is to be used  see the Rules section.
Vertical Sluice Gate Datafile Format
Line 1  keyword `SLUICE' [comment]
Line 2  keyword `VERTICAL'
Line 3  Label1, Label2, [Label3]
Line 4  C_{vw}, C_{vg}, b, z_{c}, h_{g}, L
Line 5  p_{1}, p_{2}, BIAS, C_{vs}, [W_{drown}, S_{drown}, T_{drown}]
Line 6  n_{gates}, tm, rptflg
Line 7  O_{mode}, [oprate, opemax, opemin, CLabel]
Line 8  keyword `GATE',[description]
Line 9  n_{1}
If O_{mode} = `water1' or `water2' or `water3':
Line 10 to Line 9+n_{1}  y_{1,j}, yO_{1,j}
If O_{mode} = `time':
Line 10 to Line 9+n_{1}  t_{1,j}, yO_{1,j}
If O_{mode} = `controller' or `logical'
Line 10 to Line 9+n_{1}  t_{1,j}, opmode, yO_{1,j}
Line 10+n_{1}  keyword `GATE', [description]
Line 11+n_{1}  n_{2}
If O_{mode} = `water1' or `water2' or `water3':
Line 12+n_{1} to Line 11+n_{1}+n_{2}  y_{1,j}, yO_{1,j}
If O_{mode} = `time':
Line 12+n_{1} to Line 11+n_{1}+n_{2}  t_{1,j}, yO_{1,j}
If O_{mode} = `controller' or `logical'
Line 12+n_{1} to Line 11+n_{1}+n_{2}  t_{1,j}, opmode, yO_{1,j}
Note:
 The last 3 lines are repeated for each gate in turn.
 The RULES subblock should appear immediately after this unit if `logical' operating mode is to be used  see the Rules section.