- 21 Mar 2023
- 7 Minutes to read
- Updated on 21 Mar 2023
- 7 Minutes to read
Introducing the 1D urban solver
The 1D urban solver allows you to combine surface and subsurface flow to obtain a detailed and integrated understanding of flood risk in urban areas, directly within Flood Modeller’s powerful user interface. You can use Flood Modeller's 1D river solver to model channels, or its 2D solver to model surface water flow, whilst linking to the 1D urban solver to model the interaction with and the impact on the drainage network.
Functionality is now provided to enable 1D urban (piped) networks to be visualised in the Flood Modeller map view. It is possible to visualise both 1D urban and 1D river networks simultaneously. Therefore, it is now possible to view all components of an integrated model system (1D urban/1D river/2D) in one place. The displayed 1D urban network is also listed in a new dedicated tab of the right-hand panel. This shows all model nodes and links in separate tables which also display the component type. Loaded 1D urban models will also appear in the 'Project' panel in both a new '1D Urban Networks' section and in the 'Simulations' section. Multiple 1D urban networks can be loaded into the same Flood Modeller project. In this case, the network set as “Active” will be displayed in the map and right panel (and will be shown in bold in the 'Project' panel).
Editing of 1D urban node and link properties can be performed in the Flood Modeller user interface (for the active network). If you need to create new 1D urban nodes this currently needs to be done outside of Flood Modeller.
Configure and run 1D urban simulations from within the Flood Modeller user interface. Whole model settings can be reviewed and adjusted. These are accessed from the menu displayed when right-clicking on an active 1D urban network in the Project Panel. Functionality is now provided to enable standalone 1D urban models to be run without needing to install 3rd party software.
Plotting of time series, XY scatter and long section results from 1D urban simulations has been added to the Flood Modeller interface. Plotting tools can access results for 1D urban models that have been run in isolation or in an integrated model. The Time series plotting tool for 1D urban allows linking flow data to the 2D domain to be added to a chart (these data are output in csv format from linked 2D simulations). Urban data plots created in Flood Modeller can be exported as images for use in reports or the underlying data can be exported for use in Excel (or similar). Editing tools are also included to enable customisation of charts. The Long section tool includes functionality to animate results within the long section.
New linking tools have been added to enable linking of 1D urban models to Flood Modeller 1D river and 2D models. This enables the creation of fully integrated surface/sub-surface model systems that utilise all Flood Modeller model components (1D urban/1D river/2D) dynamically linked. The 1D Urban/1D River links that you define are stored in a comma separated text file with extension “.isl”. The 1D Urban / 1D River linking tool enables 1D river to 1D urban node cross references to be defined by clicking on 1D river nodes on the map view.
1D urban / 2D links are defined by shapefile elements located at relevant 1D urban node locations on the 2D domain. These elements can be polygons, polylines or points that will then each interact with either single or multiple underlying 2D domain grid cells. The 2D linking tool creates these elements automatically after the user selects the relevant 1D urban nodes in the Urban Nodes table. The selected 1D urban / 2D links can be exported to a new shapefile or appended to an existing linking element shapefile. The integrated components are referenced within the simulation and the shapefiles representing the defined links simply dragged into the window provided.
Embed structures in 2D
Flood Modeller has been enhanced to enable selected structures (1D structures) to be embedded within a 2D domain. Embedded structures are defined as independent model components, with locations represented by polyline shapefiles and structure properties stored in an associated text file (“structure” file, with extension “.str”).
Available structures that can be embedded in a 2D model are as follows.
- Culvert – incorporates any existing 1D conduit shape, coupled with entry and exit losses and optional bend
- Weir – can be any existing weir type
Structures within a 2D model are defined with much the same properties as within a 1D river network, but with the advantage that they are not restricted to always remain wet. Thus, they provide a more stable option for representing structures within the 2D domain, e.g. bridge arches, embankment culverts, etc. Each domain of a 2D model can incorporate multiple embedded 1D structures. These are defined on a per domain basis, in a new tab added to the 2D model interface. The interface also enables output variables and save intervals to be defined independently for each embedded structure. A new 2D Build tool has been added to enable the quick and easy definition of embedded 1D structures. New shapefile polylines are drawn as normal using the provided shapefile editor tools. These represent the structure locations within the 2D domain and also define the 2D grid cells that will interact with the start and end of the structure. The embedded structures tool in the Layer Editor then associates user defined 1D structures to each line and writes the data for these to an associated 1D structures file (“.str” file). The structure dimensions can be specified either by user entered parameters or by utilising the length and line direction represented by the shapefile polyline. The 2D results time series plotting tool has also been enhanced to add plotting of the results of 1D embedded structures. These data are written to a .csv text file. Multiple output files (e.g. from different simulations) can be loaded into the tool and results plotted on the same chart.
New levee options provided
Levee type structures can now be included in 1D river cross sections. When present the 1D solver will calculate different water levels across a single 1D section; for left bank, right bank and main channel (see user guide for the technical explanation of the method). This enables 1D river sections to more accurately represent extended sections which can contain lower lying areas disconnected from the main channel. With levee markers in place these disconnected areas will only become wet after water levels exceed the river bank heights, instead of a single 1D water level being calculated and applied across the entire section. New levee markers, specified in the Special Markers column of a river cross section, define the extent of the main channel and left and right banks. The 1D river cross section plotting tool has been enhanced to display separate left, right and main channel water levels for cross sections containing levees. All three water level datasets can also be animated in cross section charts. The 'Change River Section Markers' tool (in Toolbox) has been enhanced to allow a wider range of automated marker changes. This will enable deactivation or levee markers to be added at panel marker (or bank marker) locations for multiple river sections in a single operation. Also allows quick setting of levee markers, e.g. based on existing bank markers.
The map view now has the option to re-project all model and GIS data to a common map projection. This has the advantage of being able to avoid offsets between adjacent base mapping tiles. Offsets are caused when the base mapping is re-projected to a different map projection to match loaded model data (this has been the only option in previous versions). Now you can set the map to use the projection used by base mapping and re-project model data to match this. Thus, base map tiles are shown as is, without any re-projection. This new option is located in the Flood Modeller 'Application Settings' window. The original map projection functionality is also retained as an option, i.e. project base maps to the projection of your GIS datasets.
Enhanced Global Edit
Enhanced global edit tool for modifying all cross-section bed elevations (for a user selected group of river cross sections). This tool is located in the right-click menu of the 1D river network table (right-hand panel).
Enhanced Culvert Inlet Tool
When editing existing 1D culvert inlets you can now access the culvert wizard tool to define different inlet parameters (based on the UK CIRIA culvert design and operation guide). This is accessed via a new button added to the culvert inlet node properties window. Previously the culvert wizard was only accessible when defining a new culvert inlet node (and the option to use the culvert wizard was ticked in the 1D River options window – which is the default setting).
Improved Data Handling
Improved handling of large 2D results sets – The map view is now up to ten times faster at loading big 2D results datasets into the map view and moving between timesteps once these data are loaded.
...and so much more!
Full details on all new functionality and solver enhancements can be found in the v5.0 release notes available here: